Tuesday, June 15, 2010

What is Absence of the Septum Pellucidum?

The septum pellucidum (SP) is a thin membrane located at the midline of the brain. Children who are born without this membraine and also have other abnormalities--pituitary deficiencies and abnormal development of the optic disk--have a disorder known as septo-optic dysplasia.

Is there any treatment?
Absence of the SP alone is not a disorder but is instead a characteristic noted in children with septo-optic dysplasia.

SO,What is Septo-Optic Dysplasia?

Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder characterized by abnormal development of the optic disk, pituitary deficiencies, and often agenesis (absence) of the septum pellucidum (the part of the brain that separates the anterior horns or the lateral ventricles of the brain). Symptoms may include blindness in one or both eyes, pupil dilation in response to light, nystagmus (a rapid, involuntary to-and-fro movement of the eyes), inward and outward deviation of the eyes, hypotonia , and hormonal problems. Seizures may also occur.
In a few cases, jaundice may occur at birth. Intellectual problems vary in severity among individuals. While some children with SOD have normal intelligence, others have learning disabilities and mental retardation. Most, however, are developmentally delayed due to vision impairment or neurological problems.

This Figure shows severity of classical triad of SOD
(i) optic nerve hypoplasia, (ii) pituitary hormone abnormalities and (iii) midline brain defects

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How to take a History of hand & wrist joint

When taking the history of a hand problem, consider:

* pain:
o pain from the hand may be felt in the fingers or palm
o a diffuse ache may be referred from the neck, shoulder or mediastinum

* deformity:
o as well as providing function the hand is also of great cosmetic importance
o deformity may occur acutely e.g. due to tendon rupture, or slowly due to bone or joint pathology

* swelling:
o symmetry and pattern of joint involvement may be diagnostic

* function:
o the patient may be unable to grasp doorknobs, turn keys or do buttons up

The history of the wrist joint should cover the following areas:

* often well localised in the wrist indicating particular disorders

* may be noticed only when severe

* either of the joint or tendon sheaths

* except in trauma, this is usually a late symptom

Easy carpal bones mnemonic:

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Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine

1360 pages
Publisher: Saunders Ltd.; 7 edition (July 2, 2009)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 0702029939
ISBN-13: 978-0702029936

The 7th edition of Kumar and Clark's Clinical Medicine is a thoroughly updated, reworked and revised new edition of the first-prize winner in the Medicine category in the BMA 2006 Medical Book Competition. It is the market-leading comprehensive and authoritative single-volume textbook of internal medicine, consulted by students and doctors alike throughout the world. Covering the management of disease, based on an understanding of scientific principles, and including the latest developments in treatment, it is written for medical students and doctors preparing for specialist exams, but it is an ideal general reference text for all practising doctors. The new edition is part of Elsevier's StudentConsult electronic community. StudentConsult titles come with full text online, a unique image library, case studies, questions and answers, online note-taking, and integration links to content in other disciplines - ideal for problem-based learning.

# Colour-coded chapters make the book attractive and easy to navigate.

# Drawings and photographs bring the subjects to life.

# Boxes and tables pull out and display important information.

# Clear headings and a comprehensive index allow the reader to pinpoint information quickly and accurately.

# The online version has been extended and updated as part of the Student Consult platform.

# Over 100 new illustrations

# Five new contributors.

# Thoroughly updated, rewritten and revised to reflect changes in practice and approach.

# Online version with extra content, including animations and sounds, and fuller treatments of regionally specific medical problems such as malaria, SARS, TB, viral haemorrhagic (dengue) fever, leprosy, snake bite etc.

# Expanded input from the International Advisory Panel of experts from around the world, augmenting the book's international scope.

For Download :