Thursday, December 16, 2010


Thrombophlebitis and DVT lecture

Eliciting Chvostek’s sign

Chvostek's sign is contraction of the muscles of the eye, mouth or nose, elicited by tapping along the course of the facial nerve. The examiner taps gently over the facial nerve in front of the ear.

This sign usually suggests hypocalcemia but can occur normally in about 25% of patients. Typically, it precedes other signs of hypocalcemia and persists until the onset of tetany. It can’t be elicited during tetany because of strong muscle contractions.
Normally, eliciting Chvostek's sign is attempted only in patients with suspected hypocalcemic disorders. However, because the parathyroid gland regulates calcium balance, Chvostek's sign may also be tested in patients before neck surgery to obtain a baseline.

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Anatomical parts of Gingiva

The image above shows the actual anatomy of the gingiva, known commonly as the "gums". The lighter pink colored gum tissue is called the "attached gingiva" because it is ..........

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Nanomaterials Used in Vivo Applications

A handful of nanomaterials are being studied in clinical trials or have already been approved by the FDA for use in humans and many proof-of-concept studies of nanomaterials in cell-culture and small-animal models for medical applications are under way.

Many of these nanomaterials are designed to target tumors in vivo and are intended for use either as drug ...............

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People have 3 types of tonsils

"PPL (people) have tonsils":
  • Pharyngeal
  • Palatine
  • Lingual

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Shapes of Arterial pressure waves

While palpating the pulse of a patient, you note that the pulse wave has two peaks. You auscultate the heart and are certain that there is only one heartbeat for each two
pulse waves. Which of the following best describes this finding?
  1. a.Pulsus alternans
  2. b.Dicrotic pulse
  3. c.Pulsus parvus et tardus
  4. d.Pulsus bigeminus
  5. e.Pulsus bisferiens

. The answer is: ( e ).
 Pulsus bisferiens (bisferious pulse) is seen in AI and in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In the latter, the first wave or percussion wave is due to the rapid flow rate of initial contraction, and the second wave or tidal wave is due to the slower rate of continued contraction. The dicrotic pulse has two palpable pulses, but one is in systole and the other is in diastole.

Pulsus bigeminus is an alteration in pulse amplitude that follows a ventricular premature beat. Pulsus alternans is a regular alternating pulse amplitude due to alternating left ventricular contractile force; it is usually seen with severe left ventricular decompensation and cardiac tamponade. Pulsus parvus et tardus(“small and slow rising”) represents a delayed systolic peak due to obstruction to left ventricular ejection. It is seen in aortic stenosis (AS)


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Color Atlas of Ultrasound Anatomy

Publisher: Thieme | ISBN: 1588902811 | edition 200| PDF | 296 pages | 20,9 mb

This brilliant pocket guide helps you to grasp the connection between three-dimensional organ systems and their two-dimensional representation in ultrasound imaging. Through dynamic illustrations and clarifying text, it allows you to: - Recognize, name, and confidently locate all organs, landmarks, and anatomical details of the abdomen -Examine all standard planes, including transverse and longitudinal scans for regions of sonographic interest (including the thyroid gland) - Understand topographic relationships of organs and structures in all three spatial planes This invaluable text is ideal for the beginner, providing a rapid orientation to all key topics.

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Almond as a source for calcium

Over all, you would still get some calcium by eating almonds, but at a lot higher calorie cost than from other foods, like milk.

The amount of calcium in a cup of whole almonds, 378 milligrams, is slightly more than in a cup of milk, about 300 milligrams, but you would be consuming about eight times as many calories.