Wednesday, December 22, 2010

Scheme for Metabolic acidosis

Metabolic acidosis is a commonly presenting feature and is often caused by diabetes, renal failure or poisoning. However, it can cause diagnostic difficulties, particularly in the acute situation when patients ................

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What is Microperimetry


Artificial Iris Implant


Complementary ultrasound to mammography ; Why?

Breast cancer can lie hidden from mammography in women with dense breast tissue, and thus the role of ultrasound is implemented to evaluate the texture and anatomical structures within the breast. Women most likely to have dense breasts are younger, premenopausal women and postmenopausal women who are taking hormone replacement therapy.

Breast ultrasound is used as a complementary examination to mammography in the following situations:

* Evaluation of dense breast tissue.
* Evaluation of a mass demonstrated on mammography.
* Guidance of biopsy needle or needle localization (see cyst aspiration image)

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Behcet's Disease Ulcers pic

Behcet's disease is a rare, chronic, lifelong disorder that involves inflammation of blood vessels throughout the body.........

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Fibroadenomas, which are generally firm, smooth, and round, can be readily moved under the skin and are often described as feeling similar to marbles. Typically the masses measure from 1 to 3 centimeters in size, but occasionally they may grow much larger, in which case they are termed giant fibroadenomas. Fibroadenomas, which arise from the intralobular stroma, are solid and consist of a combination of glandular and fibrous tissues. The tumors are usually painless and present no symptoms, typically being discovered by young women only due to self-examination. In older women, fibroadenomas are often less palpable and may first be discovered during a routine mammogram.

Fibroadenomas showing circumscribed margins, even distribution of epithelial and stromal components and low stromal cellularity.
-Low power scanning of Fibroadenoma :
# Use low power scanning to determine:
  •  the basic pattern - pericanalicular or intracanalicular
  •  edge of lesion (pushing or infiltrative) - should be pushing
  •  balance between stroma and epithelium - should be even
  •  to pick out areas of stromal hypercellularity

# The stroma can be cellular particularly in younger patient's lesions - but it's usually uniform

# The occasional stromal mitosis is acceptable in a younger patient's lesion but take advice

# Uneven stromal cellularity in a core biopsy may be a pointer to a Phyllodes Tumour

You can suspect Phyllodes Tumour if:
* Patient older than 40 years
* Lesion larger than 4 cm
* History of recent growth

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Manual of Common Bedside Surgical Procedures

"Manual of Common Bedside Surgical Procedures" by Herbert Chen and Christopher J. Sonnenday
L W W | 371 pages | English | 2000, 2 edition | ISBN: 0683307924 | CHM | 8,0 MB

This is a pocket reference devoted solely to the invasive monitoring, diagnostic, and therapeutic procedures performed at bedside. Illustrations are accompanied by a text that covers: indications; contra-indications; anaesthesia; equipment; positioning; technique; and possible complications of each procedure. This guide is intended to be of use to surgical house staff and students.

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Trachea and Esophagus in relation to vertebral and sternal levels

The trachea, or windpipe , which has cervical and thoracic parts, extends from the inferior end of the larynx (C6 vertebra) to its point of bifurcation (between T5 and 7 vertebral level). It is about 9 to 15 cm in length. .................