Monday, August 2, 2010

circulacion fetal animacion

Netter's Atlas of Human Physiology (Netter Basic Science)

223 pages
Publisher: Saunders; 1st edition (May 15, 2002)
Language: English
ISBN-10: 1929007019
ISBN-13: 978-1929007011

Organ structure and function "come alive" with 250 of Dr. Frank H. Netter's beautifully rendered color drawings
This Atlas provides the student of physiology a clear and concise summary and review of the major principles of organ system physiology. Organized by system and includes graphs, tables, schematics, and an abundance of full-color illustrations.


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adherent leukoma

The history of this eye: A corneal ulcer formed. The ulcer produced a minute perforation of the cornea. The aqueous humor rushed towards the site of perforation and carried the iris with it.
The iris plugged the perforation and became incorporated with the scar issue healing process. Notice the iris pigment that is incorporated in the corneal scar -evidence of iris involvement and thus, an adherent leukoma.

Fortunately, this eye recovered from this potentially catastrophic situation. Other eyes might have gone on to staphyloma, glaucoma,endophthalmitis, panophthalmitis and / or phthisis bulbi from the same initial corneal ulcer.

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Antimalarial medications overdose

A woman on antimalarial medications takes an overdose .
Which of the following is the most consistent feature of antimalarial overdose?
  • a) ventricular arrhythmias
  • b) hypokalemia
  • c) methaemoglobinaemia
  • d) Thrombocytosis
  • e) blindness

The correct answer is B

Quinoline derivatives, particularly quinine and chloroquine, are highly toxic in overdose. The toxic effects are related to their quinidine-like actions on the heart and include circulatory arrest, cardiogenic shock, conduction disturbances and ventricular arrhythmias.

Additional clinical features are obnubilation, coma, convulsions, respiratory depression. Blindness is a frequent complication in quinine overdose.
Hypokalaemia is consistently present, although apparently self-correcting, in severe chloroquine poisoning and is a good index of severity. Recent toxicokinetic studies of quinine and chloroquine showed good correlations between dose ingested, serum concentrations and clinical features, and confirmed the inefficacy of haemodialysis, haemoperfusion and peritoneal dialysis for enhancing drug removal. The other quinoline derivatives appear to be less toxic. Amodiaquine may induce side effects such as gastrointestinal symptoms, agranulocytosis and hepatitis.
The main feature of primaquine overdose is methaemoglobinaemia. No cases of mefloquine and piperaquine overdose have been reported. Overdose with quinacrine, an acridine derivative, may result in nausea, vomiting, confusion, convulsion and acute psychosis. The dehydrofolate reductase inhibitors used in malaria treatment are sulfadoxine, dapsone, proguanil (chloroguanide), trimethoprim and pyrimethamine. Most of these drugs are given in combination. Proguanil is one of the safest antimalarials. Convulsion, coma and blindness have been reported in pyrimethamine overdose. Sulfadoxine can induce Lyell and Stevens-Johnson syndromes.

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