Saturday, February 6, 2010



Kidney Stones part 3


Initial treatment for kidney stones aims at relieving pain. This may include strong narcotic based pain relief such as morphine. If pain and other symptoms are severe, admission to hospital may be necessary so that pain relief and fluids can be given via a drip into a vein (intravenously). If infection is suspected or shown to be present, antibiotic medications may be given.

Underlying medical conditions will need to be identified and treated in order to prevent recurrence of the kidney stones.
In the majority of cases the kidney stones will pass by themselves. In these cases the only treatment required is adequate pain relief and plenty of fluids and rest.

In cases where the stones are too large to pass, the pain is excessive, there is evidence of kidney damage or infection, further treatment to remove the stones may be necessary.


The different surgical techniques used to remove kidney stones include:

*Ureteric stone removal – Where a tube is passed via the urethra and bladder
into the ureter, where the kidney stones are located and removed.
*Percutaneous nephrolithotomy – Where a thin tube (nephrostomy tube) is inserted
directly into the kidney through the skin. The stone is located and removed via
the tube or shattered by ultrasonic waves.
*Open surgery – This may be necessary if the stones are large, are lodged in the
kidney, and other techniques to remove the stones are unsuitable.

LITHOTRIPSY (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy – ESWL):

Lithotripsy is a non-invasive alternative to surgery that uses high-energy shock waves to shatter the stones. Once the stones are disintegrated, the sand-like fragments that remain pass out of the body in the urine. Large stones may require more than one lithotripsy treatment.


Kidney Stones part 2


A few people have and pass small kidney stones without experiencing pain.
A kidney stone attack has classic symptoms: the most agonizing pain in the lower back just below the ribs spreading around to the front of the abdomen and often extending into the groin area. The pain may come in waves as the stone tries to move through the ureter.

Sometimes there will be blood in the urine. Often there is nausea, fever and chills, and vomiting. The abdomen or lower back may be painful to touch.
The severity of the pain is no indicator of the size of the passing kidney stone. This pain is often described as the worst pain a person has ever suffered . It is reported to be more painful than gun shots, surgery, broken bones, or even burns. The pain is not a result of the stone moving or tearing the ureter as a sufferer might suspect. Rather, the pain is caused by the dilating or stretching of the urinary tract being blocked by the stone when it gets stuck in the ureter.

More than one million people in the United States are hospitalized each year because of kidney stone attacks. A suffer should call their doctor or go to the hospital emergency room if they experience severe or persistent bleeding, if the pain continues to be severe, unrelenting and persistent, or if fever and chills or nausea and vomiting develop.

During a kidney stone attack the sufferer should drink large amounts of water (two to three quarts per day). Stay active. Do not go to bed (except for normal sleep periods). Physical activity may actually assist passage of the kidney stones.