Sunday, December 19, 2010

Researchers on a Completely fearless woman, Do you belive !!

It has been known since the 1930s that when a certain part of monkeys’ brains were removed, the animals became fearless. Now similar effects are being seen in humans according to a study in the journal Current Biology. Justin Feinstein, the study’s lead author and a clinical neuropsychologist at the University of Iowa said, “There’s not very many humans with this sort of brain damage… Luckily for us, we had access to a patient, SM, and we studied her different fear behaviours and we read her personal diaries.”

SM due to a rare condition called lipoid proteinosis does not have her amygdala. The amygdala is an almond-shaped structure that studies have shown plays a role in processing fear and other emotions, though experts say its exact role is unclear. Her condition is termed Urbach-Wiethe disease. This has made her fearless to all normally fear evoking stimuli like snakes, spiders etc. This has also made her put her life at risk a few times. Now the team is trying to coach the patient to behave in a more cautious manner.

Dr. Jon Shaw, professor of psychiatry at the University of Miami School of Medicine said, “It’s very striking that she has only a rational response, not a physiological one… The body is not prepared for a physiological response because the amygdala has been taken out of the loop.” Ruben Gur, professor in the Departments of Psychiatry, Radiology & Neurology at the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine in Philadelphia was said, “If you look at past neuroimaging studies, there is clear evidence that the amygdala is extremely sensitive to fearful stimuli.”

Researchers believe that her condition may offer clues for therapy of people with excessive fear like war veterans. This condition is known as post-traumatic stress disorder or PTSD. Feinstein said, “We may be able to dampen the effects of the amygdale… We can do that through psychotherapy and possibly through medication.”

Not all are convinced. Elizabeth Phelps, professor of psychology and neural science at New York University said, “You have to interpret case studies with caution since there’s been contradictory work done.” She pointed out that there is one study that found an unusual emotional response in monkeys whose brains were experimentally damaged, but only during specific stages of development. She explained there was another patient HM who had part of his brain, including the amygdala, removed to treat severe epilepsy. His main problem, according to experts, was his memory loss.

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Causes of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation

Think about DOPE
Endotracheal intubation: diagnosis of poor bilateral breath sounds after intubation
  1. Displaced (usually right mainstem, pyreform fossa, etc.)
  2. Obstruction (kinked or bitten tube, mucuous plug, etc.)
  3. Pneumothorax (collapsed lung)
  4. Esophagus

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International Handbook of Personal Construct Psychology

International Handbook of Personal Construct Psychology
Publisher: Wiley | ISBN: 0470847271 | edition 2003 | PDF | 530 pages | 19,3 mb

This first International Handbook of Personal Construct Psychology (PCP) illustrates by its breadth and scope the huge influence the work of George Kelly has had, since its inception in 1955, on psychology and related disciplines. Including some previously unpublished material by Kelly and Bannister, alongside classic texts, the handbook is largely devoted to the practical applications of Kelly’s work today.
Areas in which PCP is now being used include expert systems, forensic psychology, psychotherapy and counselling, politics, post-traumatic stress, education, developmental and family psychology, organizational psychology, cross-cultural understanding, nursing, policing, artificial intelligence and sport. As far as possible, each chapter aims to give the reader an idea or method that they can try out for themselves in their own work or personal context.
Even today some of Kelly’s ideas are novel. Although all-embracing, this handbook cannot be comprehensive as new applications and extensions are being developed continually. It will prove an invaluable reference to practitioners and scholars from a wide range of disciplines, wherever human understanding is relevant.

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Cultural Competencies For Nurses: Impact On Health And Illness

Linda Dayer-Berenson, "Cultural Competencies For Nurses: Impact On Health And Illness"
Publisher: J,,,ones & B,,,artlett Learning; 1 edition | 2010 | ISBN: 0763756504 | PDF | 346 pages | 2.2 MB

This Text Is A Resource To Help The Nurse At All Levels Navigate Through The Obstacles That Culture Can Place On The Patient Experience. It Compiles The History And Theory Behind Cultural Competency In Nursing And Offers Key Information Regarding Health Beliefs And The Impact Of Culture On Health And Illness.

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Introduction To Serum Protein Electrophoresis

Risk factors for retinal detachment

-Which of the following is considered a risk factor for retinal detachment? 
A) Glaucoma
B) Diabetic retinopathy
C) Hyphema
D) Myopia

Answer and Discussion
Retinal detachment is a preventable cause of vision loss. It is relatively common after the age of 60. There are three types of retinal detachments: exudative, tractional, and rhegmatogenous. The most common type is rhegmatogenous, which results from retinal breaks caused by vitreoretinal traction.
Exudative (or serous) retinal detachment results from the accumulation of serous and/or hemorrhagic fluid in the subretinal space because of hydrostatic factors (e.g., severe acute hypertension), or inflammation (e.g., sarcoid uveitis), or neoplastic effusions. Exudative retinal detachment generally resolves with adequate treatment of the underlying disease, and restoration of normal vision is often excellent. Tractional retinal detachment occurs via centripetal mechanical forces on the retina, usually mediated by fibrotic tissue resulting from previous hemorrhage, injury, surgery, infection, or inflammation.

Risk factors for retinal detachment include advancing age, previous cataract surgery, myopia, and trauma. Other eye conditions including hyphema, glaucoma, and diabetic retinopathy are not considered risk factors for retinal detachment.
Patients typically present with symptoms such as light flashes, floaters, peripheral visual field loss, and blurred vision. Retinal tears may occur without symptoms, but often photopsia (light flashes) is noted. Photopsia results from vitreoretinal traction. When the retina tears, blood and retinal pigment epithelium cells may enter the vitreous cavity and are perceived as “floaters.” Immediate intervention can prevent retinal detachment. Patients with the acute onset of flashes or floaters should be referred to an ophthalmologist.
The answer is D.

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Kaposi's sarcoma PIC

Kaposi's sarcoma In AIDS patient

Although Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a type of cancer it differs from other types of cancer in the way it develops. Unlike most cancers, .................

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Screening for Diabetic Retinopathy by new Fundus Camera