Thursday, November 4, 2010

Palato-Pharyngeal Function

Surgical patients with parts of their faces surgically removed show palato-pharyngeal functions.

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Disease of bones,stones,abdominal groans and psychiatric moans

Primary hyperparathyroidism is described as "a common disorder of mineral metabolism characterized by incompletely regulated, excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from one or more of the parathyroid glands"

The signs and symptoms of primary hyperparathyroidism are those of hypercalcemia. They are classically summarized by the mnemonic "stones, bones, abdominal groans and psychiatric moans".

* "Stones" refers to kidney stones, nephrocalcinosis, and diabetes insipidus (polyuria and polydipsia). These can ultimately lead to renal failure.
* "Bones" refers to bone-related complications. The classic bone disease in hyperparathyroidism is osteitis fibrosa cystica, which results in pain and sometimes pathological fractures. Other bone diseases associated with hyperparathyroidism are osteoporosis, osteomalacia, and arthritis.
* "Abdominal groans" refers to gastrointestinal symptoms of constipation, indigestion, nausea and vomiting. Hypercalcemia can lead to peptic ulcers and acute pancreatitis.
* "Psychiatric moans" refers to effects on the central nervous system. Symptoms include lethargy, fatigue, depression, memory loss, psychosis, ataxia, delirium, and coma.

The German description of the same symptoms is "Stein-, Bein- und Magenpein", literally "stone, leg, and stomach-pain".

In 1990, A National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus panel defined renal stones in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism as an absolute indication for parathyroidectomy.
2-year-old woman  underwent parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Sonogram of left kidney shows multiple calculi (arrows).

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Thieme Color Atlas of Hematology 2nd edition

H. Theml/H. Diem/
T. Haferlach
Color Atlas of Hematology
2nd edition
198 pp, 32 tables, 262 illustrations
eISBN 9781604061468
Georg Thieme Verlag
A Flexibook for both the specialist and non-specialist, the new book offers accessible information on hematology in a succinct format. In addition to providing basic methodology, the book utilizes more than 260 color illustrations to detail the most up-to-date clinical procedures. Numerous tables and flow charts are included to assist in differential diagnosis, making this a valuable didactic reference for nurses, practicing physicians and residents preparing for board examinations.

For Download :

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Megaloblastic anaemia is a disorder of the bone marrow. There is a presence of erythroblasts in the bone marrow with delayed nuclear maturation because of defective DNA synthesis.

In megaoblastic anaemia Erythrocytes are larger and have higher nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratios compared to normoblastic cells.
Neutrophils can be hypersegmented, and megakaryocytes are abnormal. Risk Factors for Megaloblastic anaemia are Vitamin B12 deficiency ,Folic acid deficiency and Conditions with neither B12 nor folate deficiency, e.g. orotic aciduria, where there is a defect in pyrimidine synthesis, therapy with drugs interfering with DNA synthesis and myelodysplasia.

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